The Activities of the Followers of Imam Reza (A.S) and Imam Javad (A.S) in Qom
Wednesday , 01/08/2014 - 14:29
امام جواد
Qom which has been located in the desert margin was in the way of trade Caravans of Hamedan, Rey, and Isfahan (Three cities in Iran). This city linked the desert to Khurasan and Transoxania. Also, this city connected the desert to Arrajan, Ahwaz and Iraqi cities.
As it was located in desert margin, it was a good opportunity for fleeing of individuals or tribes to refuge there so that they were protected from the army of Caliphs. Therefore, it sounded that Ashari tribe and groups of "Team", "Qayyes", and "Anz" tribes had migrated to Qom due to the above-mentioned reason as they were among the tribes which participated in Abdul Rahman- ibn – i Mohammed - ibn – i Ashs's uprising. After they had been defeated by Hajjaj - ibn – i Yusuf Saqafi in "Deir Aljmajm", they escaped and retreated toward Rey city and built Qom.
Among them, we can certainly state that Ashari tribe was Shi'a since this tribe, especially their leader defeated Mokhtar's uprising to the last moment of their lives.
Consequently, Asharis brought Shi'a to this land and made Shi'a develop in this area so that all the people around there became Shi'a. The city government was in the control of Shi'a. In this area," Hamzeh - ibn – i Yase, who was one of the Shi'as and Imam Sadiq and Imam Kazem's followers, was the ruler of the area and Ali, his son, became the next ruler following his father's death. Although Shi'as were far away of Medina and Baghdad, they were so eager to see Imams. The names of Shi'as in Qom were among Imams' followers after Imam Baqir (A.S).
Imams (A.S) have special attention to this city. They appointed a particular agent in Qom to connect with Shi'as and to organize their activities. Shi'ite expansion was a result of these agents' activities. The agent of Imam Reza and Imam Javad (A.S) was Zakaria - ibn – i Adam - ibn – i Abdullah - ibn – i As'ad Ashari.

Zakaria - ibn – i Adam - ibn – i Abdullah - ibn – i As'ad Ashari.

He and his brothers, Ismail and Isaac, were prominent characters in Qom. Isaac was able to see Imam Reza (A.S), but Ismail couldn't see any Imam. However, he was trusted by Shias. Among these brothers, Zakaria was able to see Imam Sadiq (A.S) and quoted the narratives of the Imam (A.S). He got more prominent in Imam Reza (A.S)' era so that he became Imam's agent in Qom and his mission expanded to Hamedan. Imam Reza's speech confirmed his mission. Ali - ibn – i Mosayeb, from Hamedan, came to see Imam Reza (A.S). He asked: "I'm far away of you. I can't come here whenever it's necessary, so from whom should I learn my belief principles?" The Imam (A.S) replied: "You can ask Zakaria - ibn – i Adam, who is honest in the religion and world."
This narrative reveals that the responsibility of Zakaria - ibn – i Adam was not just Qom, but we don't know which cities were in his scope of his responsibilities since Qom and Hamedan were among Gebal cities and the exact date of his agency was not mentioned.
Anyway, as we said, Zakaria was the agent in Qom in Imam Reza (A.S)' era. He ran into some unrest which expresses the failure of Yunes and his student, Ibrahim - ibn – i Hashem.
Zakaria told one of his friends: I told Imam Reza (A.S): "I'm going to separate of my family since there are many unwise persons in my family." The Imam (A.S) replied: "Don't do so since your existence saved your family as Imam Kazem (A.S)'s existence saved the people of Baghdad.
Such a comparison of Zakaria - ibn – i Adam's function expresses the significance and active and balancing role of Zakaria. It can also demonstrate the success of his attempts to face Vaqefe group successfully, which may have permeated after Imam Kazim (A.S)'s martyrdom.
Zakaria - ibn – i Adam's activities were not limited just to administrating the Shi'as in this area. Probably, he arranged some limited martial operations against enemies and governmental rumor due to the geographic conditions of Qom. There is a narrative on this topic which demonstrates the occurrence of such events:
Once, Ryan - ibn – i Salt, who was one of Imam Reza (A.S)'s followers, worked in the government which was against Imams (A.S) and was an influential man. Ryan saw the Imam (A.S) and reported the distortions of Hesham - ibn – i Ibrahim, who was from Bani Abbas and a governmental agent. Since they were roommates, he asked the Imam (A.S) to choke him so as to finish his life and then he would announce that he died by a sudden death. The Imam (A.S) disagreed. The Ryian suggested Qomi Shi'as not let him pass in 20 or 30 person groups as if they were bandits. If it happened, it would be told that he was assassinated by some bandits.
The Imam (A.S) was silent for this suggestion. Ryian interpreted Imam's silence the sign of satisfaction and said: "I have been received a mission by Fazl - ibn – i Sahl for Iraq. Then he will go some days later." He called for Zakaria after his trip near Qom and explained the story to Zakaryia and Zakaria declared his readiness. But some days later, Muammar - ibn – i Khalad, one of Imam Reza (A.S)'s followers, entered Qom and Zakaria talked to him on this topic. Muammar said: "Since the Imam (A.S) didn't order to kill him, we had better not kill him." Finally Hesham - ibn – i Ibrahim wasn't assassinated.

Qom and Ma'mun
Ma'mun adopted flexibility politics in order to calm Alaviayn uprisings, which were in Iran, Iraq, and Hejaz so that he could strengthen his power bases and could use not only Iranian people, but also Shi'as in his government. Due to the above mentioned reason, he called Imam Reza (A.S) from Medina and made him accept the succession and also he invited Ryian - ibn – i Salt Ashari, who was from Qom, and told him: "Since I can't find anybody who talked to me about Ali - ibn – i Abi Talib's virtues, I'm going to appoint the people of Qom as my sign and my cover."
The flexibility politics didn't take a long time and he accepted Abbasian's demands in Baghdad. They were against Ma'mun's tendency toward the Iranian and Shi'as. Finally he killed Imam Reza(A.S) and Fazl - ibn – i Sahl and went to Iraq. While he was migrating to Iraq, he stopped in Shahr Rey. He reduced the tribute so as to attract people's attentions. The people of Qom had the same request, but he ignored them.
The people of Qom avoided paying tribute so that Ma'mun's army, whose leaders were Ali - ibn – i Hesham and Ajif - ibn – i Anbaseh attacked this city.
At this time, Hamzeh - ibn – i Yasa' was Qom's ruler and withdrew himself from this case. The elites of the city consisting of Amer - ibn – i Emran and Yahya - ibn – i Emran were the leaders of uprising and they flopped in the war due to different ideas in fighting with Ma'mun's army. The fort of the city was totally destroyed; many people were killed; Ma'mun's soldiers got one million dirhams of yearly tribute together which should have been paid during the last seven months. Yahya - ibn – i Emran, who was Shi'a and among elites of Qom, was killed.
Anyway, the people in Qom flopped which had catastrophic results for Qomi people, but there are nothing mentioned in historical references and traditions about this event and the position of Zakaria - ibn – i Adam, who were probably alive in that era, is not clear.

Zakaria - ibn – i Adam and Shi'as faced not only Ma'mun's position, which started after Imam Reza's martyrdom, but also other internal unrest dealing with Imam Javad (A.S) and his childhood and his knowledge.
This intrigue involved Qomi Shi'as in a short period of time; the main activities of Imam Reza (A.S)'s followers involved in the activities of Imam Javad (A.S). It was such a hard situation that Zakaria couldn't transfer Imam Reza (A.S)'s.

The dispute between Meimun and Mosafer
Musafer came to Khurasan with Imam Reza (A.S). He was Imam's servant and sometimes he was sent as a messenger.
He has not been mentioned as the narrator of Imam Javad (A.S) after Imam Reza's martyrdom. He went to Imam Hadi (A.S), Imam Javad's son, and was considered Imam Hadi's follower.
But we know little about Meimun. Other narrations did not clarify this problem and there is no research about it. On the other hand, there are many people having the same name among the followers of previous Imams; no researcher has attributed him to these people.
These narrations have made no reference to the place and reason of dispute. Due to the fact that the friction between Meimun and Mosafer occurred while the deviation and divergence among Shi'as started in the beginning of Imam Javad's Imamate, it showed that the friction was in this time and it was in Qom or in Zakaria's political scope.
Besides, carrying stuff was directly related to their friction, which represents Meimon and Musafer as the significant people of Shi'a organization in Qom political scope. It sounds that he had significant responsibilities and was the leader of some Shi'a groups. Anyway, the intrigue didn't last for a long time and Mosafer, who was honorable, was successful to calm the intrigue and Zakaria transferred Imam Javad's possessions to Medina
Zakaria - ibn – i Adam had some assistances and colleagues to execute Qom and its surrounding areas. Although the responsibility and activities of his followers except Ahmad - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Isa is not clear, we can realize their closeness to Zakaria and Imam Javad's significance for them and their credit in Qom. They included:
1. Said - ibn – i Sa'd Qomi: He narrated something of Zakaria. He was particularly significant since Imam Javad (A.S) confirmed him after his death.
2. Hamzeh - ibn – i Yase's sons: He had three sons named Ali, Muhammad, and Ahmad.
Ali was the ruler of Qom after his father's death and he was Qom governor when Qom people battled against Ma'mun's army. Muhammad was the follower of Imam Javad (A.S) and Imam Hadi (A.S), but Ahmad was the follower of Imam Hadi (A.S) only. Muhammad and Ahmad narrated something from Zakaria.
3. Ahmad - ibn – i Muhammad: His nickname was Abo Ali. He was one of the elites in Qom and a prominent jurisconsult. Ahmad was one of the followers of Imam Reza (A.S), Imam Javad (A.S), and Imam Hadi (A.S). He had relations with the ruler. He took advantage of this relation so that he went to Baghdad, Kufe, and other cities freely and he connected with the elites of those cities. For some periods of time, he disaccorded with Yunes - ibn – i Abdurahman, Imam's representative in Baghdad, and Hassan - ibn – i Mahbub, who was a great scholar in religious jurisprudence and lived in Kufeh, all of which represent Shi'a. Finally, he was penitent and he repented. Nevertheless, he was trusted by the Shi'a and he had written plenty of books.
Zakaria - ibn – i Adam took advantage of these valuable persons to govern the people of Qom and its environs.
He was Imam Javad's representative till the end of his life. Finally, he died during Imam Javad's Imamate in Qom and he was buried in a big cemetery, named Sheikhan.
Zakaria's having died, Muhammad - ibn – i Eshaq reported Imam Javad (A.S) about Zakaria's death and his will to Hassan - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Emran. Imam Javad's reply were received to Muhammad - ibn – i Eshaq and Hassan - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Emran after three months while they were on the verge of going to Mecca. The Imam (A.S) praised Zakaria in the letter and wrote:
"Peace be upon him, when he was born and when he died and when he revived in the Hereafter. He was mystic in his life time and was his speaker. He was vigilant and sustainable. He did what he must do according to God's orders. Peace be upon Him. He did not breach covenant. He did not change. God will reward his intentions and grants him his best calmness."
As it was stated, Zakaria - ibn – i Adam said to Hassan - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Emran that he transferred Imam Javad (A.S) to him. Muhammad - ibn – i Eshaq reported the characteristics of Zakaria's will to Imam Javad (A.S) and asked Imam's idea about it. The Imam (A.S) replied to his letter. He appreciated the honest attempts of Zakaria and wrote:
"You pointed to a man who has been willing and you did not know our ideas about it. Our recognition to him is more than you described."
According to this narration and Imam's confirmation of Zakaria's will, it sounds that Hassan - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Emran has been appointed Imam's agent by the Imam (A.S). Vahid Behbahani authenticated this narration and confirmed Hassan - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Emran's agency. Nonetheless, the background of Hassan - ibn – i Muhammad - ibn – i Emran's activities is not clear and his name is not among the followers of Imams. He has not been seen in the battle in 210, which led to his uncle's death. Even, his name is not mentioned in the next battle.
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