Mashhad City

Friday , 10/12/2018 - 15:47
Mashhad City
blessed by the holy presence of Imam Reza (A.S.), Mashhad is the most religious city in Iran that receives the lovers of Ahl al-Bayt (A.S.) during the whole year.
 Holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) in this area has led to the development and prosperity of the city. The tourism industry is of great importance and validity in Mashhad. The significance of Mashhad in the first place comes from its position as a pilgrimage city that attracts crowds of people from all around the world for pilgrimage. In addition to Muslim tourists, many tourists and non-Muslims wish to visit the monuments and pilgrimage ritual of Muslims in such places.

The historical background
The word Mashhad means witnessing, presence and the place of witness and in this sense its plural is “Mashahid”. The words "Mashhad" and "Mashahid" in the 3rd century A.H. were attributed to the graves of the Imams (A.S.) and grand scholars. After being martyred by Ma’mun Abbasi in 202 A.H., Imam Reza (A.S.) was buried in the tomb of Harun in Sanabad. Since then, the name "Sanabad Noughan" changed to "Mashhad", and the area was extended over the years, especially during the Safavid Shah Tahmasb, and people of Tus were moved to Mashhad.
Tus was conquered completely by the Arabs during the caliphate of Uthman. In the Islamic era, this area was a part of Tus territory with the city of Taberan as its capital that encompassed the villages of Sanabad and Noughan which are currently integrated into the present Mashhad city. And Mashhad that primarily was a tomb in the village of Sanabad Noughan, gradually expanded. The name “Noughan” was forgotten from about 730 A.H. The city of Tus and in fact Tabran was demolished and replaced by Mashhad in 791 A.H. until finally during the Safavid period, it became the center of the former Tus region and the whole Khurasan. Section Hashan of Avesta has called Tus "Tusa". The book Vandidad also has mentioned that the sixteen lands were created by Ahura Mazda and "Aurva" was one of them. Scholars have equated this word with the city of Tus. Based on the national story, the main construction of the city is attributed to Jamshid – the Pishdadi king- and its renovation is attributed to Tus, Nouzar’s son- the Iranian hero and generalissimo. According to a legend, he lived for nine hundred years under the sky of the city putting his own name on the city. There is little information about the city's history in pre-Islamic period but some fabulous accounts. However, according to available evidences, it can be assumed that the city has been a boundary on the way of Gurgan and Neishabur towards Marv and Balkh as well as a famous province in the big Khurasan.

- Religious appeals
1) The holy shrine of Thamen Al-Hujaj (A.S.)

This cultural and historical complex is one of the most important Muslim religious buildings after Ka’ba and the Sacred shrine of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in Medina.
The holy Shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) is almost circular, with a glowing golden dome atop which is located almost in the center of Astan Quds Razavi monuments and the grave of the Eighth Imam (A.S.) is located at the midpoint of this structure. The first structure constructed around the holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) was built during the reign of Samanids in Khurasan.
In the sixth century of hijrah, the first dome of the shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) was made of tiles on top of the dome by the order of the Seljuk Sultan Sanjar.
The development cornerstone of the shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) was founded after the Islamic Revolution.
60 thousand and 500 square meters of roofed spaces and 186 thousand square meters of unroofed spaces was constructed after the Islamic revolution; such that the 2.5 hectares area of the whole Razavi holy shrine has presently increased to 62 hectares.
Currently, the holy shrine enjoys 70 thousand square meters of pilgrimage roofed space and 199 thousand and 800 square meters of outdoor unroofed space.
The holy Shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) has five courtyards called the Atiq (Inqilab), the new (Azadi), Imam Khomeini (museum), the Jumhuri Islami and the Quds, each displaying masterpieces of various Iranian architects.

2) Porticos to calm Shi’a scholars
The holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) hosts the graves of three persons of eminent Shi’a scholars. Tomb of Sheikh Bahaei is one of the historical sites in the vicinity of the heavenly court of Imam Reza (A.S.).
This mausoleum is located in a portico called the same as Sheikh Bahaei at the northern side of Imam Khomeini courtyard encompassing the body of Sheikh Bahauddin Muhammad Ameli known as Sheikh Bahaei, one of great Shi’ite scholars in the Shah Abbas Safavi.
The building has an area of 102 square meters, and the tomb of Sheikh Bahaei is located at the center of the portico decorated with a stone inscription narrating the biography of Sheikh Bahaei.
At the eastern north of the Inqilab courtyard and the lower part of the chambers connected to the former Mirza Ja’far seminary, there is another tomb that is connected through stairs and a door from the fourth chamber at the northern side to the Inqilab courtyard. It belongs to Sheikh al-Muhaddethin Muhammad ibn-i Hassan known as Sheikh Hurr-i Ameli, a great Shi’a scholar and the writer of the famous book "Wasael al-Shi’a". He was born in 1033 A.H. in a village in Jabal Amel. After completing his education, he moved to Mashhad and while teaching, he served as Sheik al-Islam (religious leader). He died in 1104 A.H. and was buried in this place. The tomb of his eldest son who also was a scholar is located near his tomb.
Tomb of Sheikh Tabarsi is located at the north of Inqilab courtyard and the east of Rezwan Garden and at the west side of Tabarsi portals. Its dome is decorated with tile work.
The mausoleum is the grave of Abu Ali Fazl ibn-i Hassan who is a famous Shi’a scholar and the writer of "Interpretation of Majma’ al-Bayan and Jawame’ al-Jame’” who, according to an account, was born in Iran in 470 A.H. and died in 548 A.H. in Sabzevar, and was buried in an old cemetery in Mashhad (Qatlgah), which later became known as Rezwan Garden. Rezwan Garden was located in the northwestern side of the sacred premises and the tomb of Sheikh Tabarsi was moved to the current location in 1370 during the development plan of the shrine.

3) Cultural Complex of Naderi Garden and Tomb:
Nader Shah Afshar, the king of Afsharid dynasty, who for the first time made Mashhad his capital of sovereignty, founded his first tomb in this city in Chahar Bagh. But the second tomb was constructed opposite to the former tomb after his return from India. It was destroyed later. It rested where the grave of Nader Shah exists currently. Nader’ grave stone is located inside the structure associating the war or Diamond Mountain or Sea of Light.

4) Mausoleum of Hakim Abul-Qasem Ferdowsi:
Ferdowsi was born in 329 A.H. in Paj village and died in 411 or 416 A.H. in Tus and was buried at his garden that was located inside Tus fortification in the vicinity of Razwan gate. It is not clearly known in which period the first building was erected over his tomb. The lower floor has a wall painted by Fereidun Sediqi with the theme of Haft Khan-e Rustam that has added to the splendor of this place.

5) Haruniyeh Monument:
This structure known today as Haruniyeh is located about 800 meters away from Ferdowsi's tomb and 24 km from Mashhad. Haruniyeh is a new name that has been given to this place, and has nothing to do with Harun al-Rashid Abbasi. It functions as a monastery or shrine that was built in the eighth century of Hijrah over the ruins of ancient buildings in the City Tabran and three terminal spaces was added to it during the Timurid period.

6) The Mausoleum of Abu Zeid ibn-i Rabi’ ibn-i Khasim Asadi (Khwajeh Rabi’):
Rabi’ ibn-i Khasim was one of close friends and followers of ibn-i Mas'ud, a great follower of the prophet and a leader in interpretation and tradition (Hadith). The exact date of construction is not known but according to historians, the current structure was built in the Safavid period in 1031 A.H. by order of Shah Abbas Safavi by the hands of Alagh al-Razavi, the servant.

7) Mausoleum of Khwajeh Aba Salt Heravi:
Abd al-Salam ibn-i Salih ibn-i Sulayman ibn-i Ayyub ibn-i Meysareh, known as Khwajeh Aba Salth Heravi came to Khurasan along with Imam Reza (A.S.). He was his companion everywhere and narrated explicitly how Imam was martyred by Ma'mun Abbasi.

8) Holy shrines of Imamzadehs (Imam’s children) Seyyed Naser and Sayyed Yaser (A.S.)
Village Golestan is located at 4 km from the city Turqabeh and in addition to possessing natural attractions it is a religious place as it hosts the tombs of Imamzadehs Sayyed Naser and Sayyed Yaser (A.S.) located at the beginning of this picturesque village. According to ancient texts including Canz Al-Ansab written by Sayyed Murteza, these Imamzadehs are immediate brothers of Imam Reza (A.S.).
The present location welcomes the Iranian pilgrims as well as travelers from Arabic, Persian Gulf countries and is considered one of important religious-pilgrimage places of Mashhad.

9) Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Yahya (A.S.)
Yahya ibn-i Hussein ibn-i Zeid, one of the children of Zeid ibn-i Ali ibn-i Hussein (A.S.), is buried in this holy place. Named as Hussein, he had several children, one of whom was named Yahya, known by the nickname of Aba al-Hassan. The monument has a rectangular portico, a turquoise double-shell dome, two side minarets at the entrance and a stone inscription over the entrance reading the date 937 A.H. As the inscription states, the identity of the buried one is the nephew of Yahya ibn-i Zeiyd at the time of constructing the tomb, but the sincere lovers of this mausoleum in Mayamei consider it to be the tomb of Yahya ibn-i Zeid himself.

10) Kheshti (brick-shaped) dome
The historical-religious monument known as (Kheshti dome) is located at one of the oldest tracks of Mashhad originating from Tabarsi Square called Chahar Souq-e Noughan. The monument is the tomb of Sultan Ghiyathuddin Muhammad, a famous Mousavi Sadat in Mashhad, who is an ascendant of Imam Musa ibn-i Ja'far (A.S.) after 17 generations. The tomb stone inscription says: "Murteza, Azam Sultan Al-Naqba’, Ghiyas al-Donya the parents, Amir Sultan Muhammad ibn-i Sultan Al-Naqba’ Badr al-Mellah the parents of Taher" and then it reads the holy month of Ramadan in 832 A.H. as his death date. It is called Kheshti as it is made of Khesht or brick. At the construction time the Sura “Mulk” has been inscribed with the Thulth calligraphy underneath the internal lining. The four edges of the porch also have been decorated with Sura Waqe’ah written by Reihan font. Based on the evidence, the monument has been renovated and the interior space of Kheshti dome is decorated with paintings and inscriptions during the Qajar period.

- Cultural Centers
1) Great Museum of Khurasan Razavi
The cornerstone of the museum was founded by the municipality of Mashhad, in line with preserving the national and local identity and honoring the cultural, historical and religious heritage monuments in city of Mashhad. The land area is as large as 4900 square meters, located in kuhsangi Park.

2) Museums of Astan Quds Razavi
Museums of Astan Quds Razavi are affiliated offices of the Organization of Libraries, Museums, and Center of Deeds of Astan Quds Razavi and regarding their scientific and cultural function as well as holding exquisite objects therein, they are considered among the largest and the most famous museums of the world.
- Central Museum in Mashhad
The Central Museum was built in 1324 A.H. and is considered one of the most valuable museums in Iran. The museum is located at the courtyard of Imam Khomeini (R.A.) and holds a unique set of coins from different periods of history, antique copper objects, stone, gold, and bronze objects and so on. There are other historical inscriptions in this museum displayed to the visitors. Currently there are 11 sections in the museum separating the exquisite and precious objects.
- Astan Quds Razavi Museum includes 12 collections titled as follows:
Treasury of Qur’an and handwritten manuscripts, treasury of leader’s gifts, treasury of carpet, treasury of Mashhad history, treasury of coins and medals, treasury of stamps and banknotes, treasury of shells, treasury of astronomy and clocks, treasury of weapons, treasury of dishes, treasury of sea shellfish, treasury of decorations and architectural arrays. The current building is located on the west side of the courtyard of Kowsar.
It is located on the west side of the holy shrine beside the tomb of Amir Melk Shah. The old building would be used as a bathhouse that was endowed to Astan Quds Razavi by Mahdi Quli Beig, equerry of Shah Abbas Safavi, in 1027 A.H.
This valuable place after the restoration and reconstruction in 1385 was used as the Museum of Anthropology. It is one of Iran's largest baths enjoying a beautiful structure of old baths. The unique feature of this building is the existence of 13 layers of paint on the ceiling.

3) Museum of Anthropology and bathroom of Mahdi Quli Beig
This museum was established by Amin Ghiyathuddin Malek Shah on the west side of the holy shrine at the historical monument of Mahdi Quli Beig Bathroom. The bathroom was endowed to Astan Quds Razavi by Mahdi Quli Beig in 1327 A.H., the equerry of Shah Abbas Safavi.
There are objects in this museum to be put on display such as old appliances required in bathrooms, types of coal samovar, Icicle, various containers, mug, photo exhibition of old Mashhad and Anthropology.

4) Museum of Ferdowsi and Shahnameh (Tus)
The building of this museum was designed and implemented to be used as a traditional teahouse in a part of garden concurrent with the establishment of Ferdowsi mausoleum. Later the monument was changed to a museum where objects related to Tus and the age of Ferdowsi including old war clothing, old Shahnamehs, coffee shop paintings, clay dishes, coins, bow and arrows, etc. are put on show.

5) Museum of Naderi Mausoleum
The museum is located at the site of Naderi tomb. The museum has a large space in which war and warlike items such as muzzle-loading rifles, cannon, horse supplies, etc. from the Afsharid and Qajar periods are open to the public.

6) Malek Home
The building is a two storey house with a large hall and inlaid wood ceiling and a beautiful plaster worked fireplace. This monument currently is the center of traditional arts of Khurasan Razavi cultural heritage. Its exterior view is a combination of tile and brick giving a beautiful and artistic facade of the building.

7) Dudar Seminary
This historical and cultural monument is one of the most beautiful examples of architecture in the Timurid period located on the south west of the holy shrine and on the northeastern corner of the Jumhuri courtyard in front of Parizad Seminary. The original name of this school is "Yusefiyeh", which later became known as Dudar Seminary. The monument dates back to the Timurid period, in the age of Shahrukh Mirza Gurkani. The founder of the seminary was Amir Yusef Khwajeh Bahadur, known as Ghiyathuddin, one of rulers of Khurasan in 843 A.H. Amir Yusuf’s mausoleum (died in 846 A.H.) is located beneath the southern dome of the seminary.
The monument is built on a land area of 500 square meters on two floors consisting of 32 rooms that follows the four-porch architectural structure specific to the Timurid period. Today the building is used as "Dar al-Qur’an al-Karim" for various Qur’anic activities.

8) Kheirat Khan Seminary
Kheirat khan Seminary, now located on the eastern side of the holy shrine, was established coincident with the beginning of the reign of Shah Abbas II in the year 1057 A.H. by one of the great men of those days called Kheirat khan.
The land has an area of 1500 sq.m. and has a two storied building and a rectangular courtyard where at the four sides there are two stories and two elevated balconies at the northern and southern sides. This sort of architecture was prevalent after the Timurid period in the Safavid period.
This school that was considered among one of the most prestigious and reputable seminaries began to fade after the Safavid decline. During the first Pahlavi period all the seminaries of Mashhad including this seminary that was declining were closed and during the second Pahlavi reign it was never renovated. After the Islamic revolution, with attempts of the Grand Custodian of Astan Quds Razavi, despite efforts by specialists, it was completely ruined due to destruction and decay of its foundation and was rebuilt on the initial map.

- Tourist Attractions
1. Gardens and urban promenades
Great Mellat Park

This park with an area of over 72 hectares, was built in 1345 at the front of Vakilabad Boulevard and is considered as one of the most important and the largest recreational- touristic centers in Mashhad. In addition to the leisure aspect of this place, it is an important place from cultural aspect because of the existence of the cultural-artistic complex of Imam Reza (A.S.) in the nearby area. It is a place that receives daily a large number of travelers for the urban position and facilities it has. In addition, about 4 hectares of park space is dedicated to amusement collection. The amusement park was built in 1351 H.Sh. and is considered the first Mashhad amusement park. Ferris wheel (Fanfar) in the amusement park with a diameter of 80 meters is the largest Ferris wheel across the Middle East. This amusement park is the first holder of amusement park equipment standard in the country and joined since 1390 to the International Amusement Parks Association (IAAPA).

Cultural and recreational Complex of Kuhsangy
This complex has been constructed with an area of about 100 hectares that is mainly made of rocky hills. According to Islamic authentic traditions, Kuhsangy is the place where Imam Reza (A.S.) leaned on during his historical-political migration from Medina towards Marv and said: "God bless them."

Recreational-Cultural Kuhestan (Mountain) Park and Vakilabad Forest Park
An old recreational place located at the margin of Mashhad is a region called Vakilabad, resting at the down of a boulevard with the same name occupying an area of over 70 hectares. Besides natural attractions, there is a very large amusement park called the Kuhestan (Mountain) Park Shadi (enjoyment) near this place with an area of 30 hectares and a zoo constructed on an area of 4 hectares. The plating devices in this park includes Thunder, Apollo, family swing, Ranger, cinema 2000, Trainband, planetarium, motorcycling, waterfall, running horse, baby swing, kids train, buffalo, Challenger, steam train, ship, carriage and so on.

Baba Qudrat Tourist Complex
This complex is a monument dating back to the Qajar period with an oldness of over 2 centuries and is built by architects and Iranian artists. It was recorded by the Organization of Cultural Heritage as a national work in 1380.
This unique complex of approximately 8,000 square meters of space currently includes:
- Traditional restaurant: a variety of traditional and modern meals are served in this restaurant that has an area of about 200 sq.m. and having a capacity of 500 people looks absolutely natural and traditional.
- Traditional teahouse: in a space of 1,000 square meters this traditional and pleasant environment welcomes dear guests with tea, Qalyan and snacks.
- Traditional Bazaar: in the space of about 1100 square meters and in 22 booths, traditional goods and art works are presented to people by artists.

Sport and Recreation Complex of Water Waves
The sport-cultural complex of the water park called Water Waves Land is considered as the largest water park across the Middle East and in terms of expanse, being roofed and equipped with facilities, it is among the most perfect water parks of the world. Different parts of the water park are the wave pool, the waterfall, raging rivers, slow and fast slides, the black hole, the space hole, the sauna and Jacuzzi. This water park in terms of Islamic principles also is the first water park in the world where women can use the facilities in separate and special way in couple days.

Aftab (Sunshine) Coast Park
Aftab (Sunshine) Coast Park as the second largest water park in Mashhad was put into operation in summer 1390 on a land area of 4,000 square meters and 15,000 square meters of infrastructure. This complex has 7 floors and is among the world's largest stratiform water parks in terms of the number of stories and the infrastructure. Roaring Waterfall with a height of over 18 m, speed slides, twin slides, twisting slide and 6 giant circles, unroofed slide and space hole slide, dining pool, Sputa salt pool with health and peeling skin benefits, and sand sauna are examples of attraction in the Aftab Coast Park.

Amusement Park of Wonderland
This roofed amusement park is located in the Almas-e Sharq Complex and possesses more than 100 prize amusement arcades along with playing devices such as train, electrical machine and hand football, all gathered in two stories. It can be considered as the largest roofed amusement park in Mashhad that has been established using attractive coloring and decoration made by foreign companies. For the convenience of visitors, the Buf Restaurant, the largest chain restaurant in Iran with more than 34 branches, is operating both inside and outside of the park.

Jam-e Jam Recreational Complex
This complex enjoys the facilities for cartage piste along with training with professional vehicles as well as the exciting game of paintball. Cartage piste of this complex along with Ershad horse riding attracts many people each day. Paintball also is very favorable. Wearing war clothing and shooting color shots to one another creates a lot of enjoyment and pleasure.

Melal Permanent Circus
This project is located in the Baharestab Boulevard on a land of about 20000 sq.m area and the capacity of about 1200 people. Using a modern and equipped system and artists from different nations of the world including Russia, Armenia, and Germany, it is among the biggest circuses of Iran.

Eastop Amusement Park
Mashhad Eastop Amusement Park with seven thousand square meters area is the largest indoor amusement park in Iran which was opened in Azar 89. This collection contains 101 game sets including train tunnel with three-dimensional films and the capacity for changing the subject for the first time in Iran. Other features include laser show, mobile rock climbing, skating, electric car, Pleasure Train, an eight-lane bowling and billiards lounge with private booths. It has also a 4 -D theater with a capacity of 64 people, coffee shop, water and fire pool, more than 100 kinds of mechanical devices and computer games that has the capacity of simultaneously use for 600 people. The amusement park has a daily capacity of 15 thousand people.

2. Natural Attractions and countryside areas
Shandiz Countryside

Park of Shandiz city is a temporary resting place that is very favorable for families, tourists and nature lovers. The capacities of Shandiz have given it a reputation as a touristic exemplary international region in the country. It is located at 38 km of the west of Mashhad. It can be accessed through the terminal axis of the Vakilabad Boulevard and the right path of Shandiz and Turqabeh junction. Numerous rivers and valleys in Shandiz offer a varied climate and beautiful landscape to the viewers. Upon entering in Shandiz, several stores can be seen where the sheepskin, carpets, stone plates, porcelains, etc. are put on sale.
Besides beautiful landscapes and hills, the countryside of Shandiz has an area of approximately 30 hectares of Forest Park where the river of Shandiz passes it by.

Turqabeh Countryside
Turqabeh countryside with an area of 1600 square kilometers is located at a mountainous region alongside and in 15 kilometers from Mashhad at the west of Vakilabad Blvd . Turqabeh has a long history in the city's history and is considered one of the lowland areas of Tus named Turughbaz during the Islamic centuries. Park of Turqabeh is an appropriate place prepared by the municipality for families to relax inside the nature. One of the most important crafts of this region besides the aboriginal products is basket weaving that due to the touristic Turqabeh, its market holds a desirable position. Fine mat weaving industries among tourists who travel to this region of Mashhad has a special place. In addition to basket weaving, raising flowers and plants is also among the active jobs in this region.
The northern slopes of the Binaloud Mountains at the west and southwest of Mashhad city have beautiful and lush valleys. Beautiful valleys of Mayan, Dehbar and Jagharq in Turqabeh and many orchards are among the lush valleys.
- Mayan Valley includes the villages of Azghad, Upper Mayan, Lower Mayan, and Hesar, whose agricultural lands and orchards are irrigated from the river of Mayan .
- Valley of Dehbar includes Dehbar and Kalateh Ahan Villages, whose land is watered by the river of Dehbar.
- Valley of Jagharq includes Jagharq, Anbaran, Turuqdar and Turqabeh city that benefit from the river of Jagharq.
Due to having the nature-based tourism landscape, it has also many parks and major shopping centers such as Bustan park, Laleh Park, City’s Park, Nusuhabad Park and Hill, Tolo’ Park, Nilufar Park, Puneh Park, and Be’that Market with 120 commercial units.

Band-e Gulestan Landscape
This is a massive brick construct located at the beginning of Turqabeh watery valley in 4 km. from it. This historical Band (dome) was built in the Timurid period. The river behind the dome creates an eye-catching landscape in the spring and summer providing also the possibility of cruising for the tourists.

Gulestan village
The village is 5 km from Mashhad, Turqabeh road located to the left and has fruit gardens with scenery lush valleys beside the dome. The tomb of Imamzadehs Yaser Naser is located in this area.

Zari Cave
This cave is located at 9 km southeast of Mashhad on pathway of the Gulestan Village and on the mountains surrounding the river. The mouth of the cave points to the height of 10 meters toward the west. It has a labyrinthine pathway and the inside lacks water resources.

The Zushk village
This village is located after Shandiz countryside and along the southeastern side of the Binalud Mountain at the fountainhead of the Shandiz Valley. It is considered one of the best countryside regions around Mashhad.

Countryside of Jagharq Village
This village is located after Turqabeh countryside at a distance of about 7 kilometers and it extends to be limited by other areas such as Anbaran, Turuqdar, Kurdineh, Taghareh, and Shandiz. The village, by an account, dates back to the age before Islam. This village plus a seasonal river has also several aqueducts and a fountain and numerous waterfalls.

Foothill Village of Kang
The village is located at 16 kilometers from Turqabeh and resembles Masuleh of Gilan as a result of the houses settling on the mountainside.
Natural garden of Haft-Houz (Seven Pools)
This 570-hectare park is located at 7 km from Mashhad area resting at a distance after Shahrak Seyyedi and travelling Khalaj road for 3 km.

Cave of Mughan
The cave is located at about sixty kilometers from the south of Mashhad after the villages of Balandar, Ardameh, Khan Rud, at the south of the village, on the Mughan Valley and its foothills. The height of this point is 2870 meters above the sea level and it is 1900 meters higher from the neighboring regions of Mashhad. Two entries are created on both sides of the cave and the more we go deep into the cave, its width increases and the way towards the bottom extends. Vertical wells have been created inside the cave that divide the interior space into three equal parts. In the space of the cave there are crystallized limestone, stalactite, and stalagmite limestone and a variety of curtain nut, sponge, and cauliflower limestone have adorned the interior.
This cave has dangerous cliffs and entering the cave without the guide and necessary equipment can be very dangerous and irrational.

Hendulabad cave ( Henduabad )
This cave is located in the Tabadkan section at 44 kilometers from Mashhad and a short distance from Hendulabad Village. The cave is 90 meters long and has a water fountain. The interior of this natural phenomenon includes stalactite and stalagmite pillars of limestone.

Akhlamad (Chenaran)
Akhlamad is one of the most beautiful natural recreational regions located at 85 kilometers from northwest of Mashhad city on the road to Chenaran Road at 10 km from Gulmakan. This area with green valleys and orchards and natural waterfalls is located on the mountain foothills of Binalud and is 1335 m higher than the sea level. At the entry of Akhlamad Valley there is located a dome remaining from the Timurid era.

Waterfall and rock wall of Akhlamad (Chenaran)
Akhlamad Village is located at 12 km from Chanaran in a mountainous region inside a beautiful valley. In watery areas of the river two waterfalls have appeared, each as high as 18 m. It has calcareous stone walls that may attract rock climbers.

Villages of Khurv and Darrud (Neishabur)
These villages are located in the countryside near the city of Neishapur, which have a suitable climate, orchards, seasonal rivers, and spectacular landscape. In hot summers they are open to travelers and visitors.

Qareh Sou Waterfall (Kalat Naderi)
Qareh Sou Valley is located near Kalat Naderi. This watery and mountainous area is an attractive place for tourists encompassing a spectacular waterfall in its heart. Several ladders installed in this mountainous region have made possible visiting the waterfall for visitors.

Mansion of Khurshid (Sun) ( Kalat Naderi )
This monument known recently among people as Qasr-e Khurshid is an uncompleted mausoleum that along with the Kabud Gonbad Mosque at the east has a cultural-religious function. This structure is located at the middle of the town and almost in all the travel accounts it has been referred to as the Nader’s tomb.

Waterfall of Ma’jan River (Torbat Heidariyeh)
This eye-catching waterfall is located at 48 kilometers from the west of Torbat Heidariyeh in the Bayg section. District of Ma’jan River is mountainous and its waterfall is one of the most beautiful spots in this place. The waterfall is 28 meters high originating from Chehel Tan mountain ranges at 54 kilometers from the northwest of Torbat Heidariyeh.

Kamar Maqbula Valley
At 3 km from Turqabeh and one kilometer from Daghestan Valley a region called “Kamar Maqbula" is located. This untouched area is covered with volcanic rocks with very nice landscape that will be so pleasant for tourists. Close to this valley there is a natural recreational park that is open to interested people and scientific groups. Access to it is feasible through the road near the hotel of Turqabeh.

-Shopping Centers and Exhibitions
Commercial Tourism Complex of Almas-e Sharq

This complex is constructed on a land area of approximately 26,000 square meters with a build-up area of about 110 thousand square meters built in the 6 floors that has been opened in 1384. This complex is one of the largest malls in the country and includes about 1,200 business units that meet the needs of visitors and citizens with regard to household appliances, audio and video devices, cell phones, computers, luxurious devices, toys, hand crafts, clothing, bags and shoes, etc.
This Commercial Tourism Complex has a special and unique architecture and design so that for the first time in Iran, with special architecture and subtle spirals and gentle slope of 3 %, the possibility of visiting the complex stories is provided without using stairs or elevator. It has a massive dome shaped as diamond that gives the building especially at night a beautiful façade under the lighting. Another characteristic of this architecture is using a grand central atrium located right under the dome and encompasses a giant beautiful waterscape. Complex stories are 4.5 meters high.
Other features of the complex is a beautiful jumping waterscape with the capability to jump water to a height of 30 meters and a 4 unparalleled different effects, panoramic glass elevator, and a grand central atrium. Facilities of the complex include 2 halls of 5 D theater, aquarium of world salty waters, coffee shop, Wonderland Amusement Park, the Chinese market or cc com , numerous traditional restaurants and fast food and classic associated with the presence of prestigious Iranian and international brands such as Brandes clothing , Salian clothing, LG, Samsung, Sony, leather of Mashhad , Jivredano clothing , Zara clothing , Balno clothing, Astan Quds Store , Bin Naser Store , Buf Restaurant , Mr. Daisy Restaurant, etc.

Commercial Tourism Complex of Vesal
Complex of jewelry and bridal accessories (Vesal) is located in the vicinity of Tourist Commercial Complex of Almas-e Sharq on an area of 16,000 square meters of land with a build-up area of about 70,000 square meters, built on 6 floors. The complex meets the needs of the brides and grooms including selling and distribution of garments and textiles, mirrors and candles, cosmetics, bags and shoes. It enjoys special architectural features and is unique in this regard.
Vesal with beautiful architecture and unique design includes a fashionable restaurant, receiving halls, musical waterscapes, a stratiform parking and utilities, and large open spaces for leisure, tourism and shopping. The existence of a hypermarket with an area of about 6000 square meters and an exclusive restaurant with an area of 2,800 square meters, have brought about more touristic attractions in the complex. With regard to trade and tourism function of Sepad, the complex is connected to Almas-e Sharq through a tunnel with 21 commercial active units. The connection between the two complexes also through the upper floors of the complex is under construction.
Great International Market of Martyr Kaveh.
This Large international market with more than 440 business units, bank branches, commercial and service offices is equipped with facilities and amenities. The market today is considered as one of the major and reputable centers for souvenir of Khurasan. It has also a stratiform parking with the capacity of 650 vehicles. Supply of cheap and favorable goods in a quiet and safe environment has managed to provide customers’ satisfaction.

Bazaar-e Reza (A.S.)
Concurrent with the destruction of the nearby area of the holy shrine and a large part of the great market of Mashhad in 1354, this market was founded to incorporate the tradesmen within a design inspired by Islamic elements and architecture. It begins at the beginning of the Beit al-Muqaddas Square and leads to the 17 Shahrivar Square. The market has been established on two ground floors and an upper floor with 960 meters length and 33 meters width, encircling totally 1171 comercial units. In every market there are seven vestibules on the two ground floors that include 100 shops and 120 shops on the first floor.
This shopping center has a variety of Mashhad souvenirs such as turquoise rings, agate rings, spices, saffron, sugar, seal and prayer rug, prayer beads, clothing and sweets that due to the proximity to the holy shrine has become popular and attracting.

Business Center of Khayyam
International center for trade and tourism of Khayyam is located on 200 hectares of area at the northern edge of the city of Mashhad around the 100-meter ring road on north of Abu Taleb and Khayyam boulevards. Some features of this market place are goods malls, restaurant and coffee shop, coffee net, etc. It has 196 commercial units with special architectural and landscape amenities for fun and supplying goods required by tourists.

Central Market
The commercial complex of Central Market is located at Shuhada Square allocating a wide space. The building comprises four stories and on the second floor the main business centers and commercial offices have been established. The floor minus two encompasses the installations and parking. The market consists of part 1 and part 2 that was started to be constructed in 1374 and was completed in 1377. The booths and shops in this market supplies clothing, souvenirs, ornaments, religious symbols and decorative elements.

Zist Khavar Commercial Complex
This complex is located in St. Kuhsangy and today is an important center for shopping in the city of Mashhad. It is established on an area of ten thousand square meters built on 17 floors with a height of 68 meters and 75 thousand square meters build-up area. The building is one of the greatest commercial and residential buildings in Iran. The complex has 700 business units in four stories and a parking garage with a capacity of 250 cars on the floor No. 4 as well as 198 residential units.

Commercial Complex of Proma
This business center is located on the corner of the Janbaz Square enjoying about 20000 square meters of commercial space and 5000 square meters of store space on five floors. The complex has 300 commercial units, a parking and 4,000 square meters of green space and recreational facilities with over 7,000 visitors per day.
It supplies supermarket items, fruits and vegetables, sweets, chocolates, toys, cosmetics, jewelry, stationery, home appliances, clothing, fast food and so on.

Khurasan Art Market
The Art Market has been constructed in 1384 by the municipality in a part of Kuhsangi cultural-recreational complex with the purpose of reviving the indigenous and traditional art works. It has an area of 2560 sq.m. having 54 stores at the ground floor and 4 halls at the upper floor for 13 art groups. Art Market is a place for presenting artistic creativity of traditional artists of Mashhad.

Alton Commercial Tower
Alton Tower as a spectacular commercial complex stuns every pilgrim and passenger who goes for pleasure and shopping to (tourist and business) Daneshgah Street.
The tower supplies variety of shoes, bags and clothing, audio and video devices, home appliances, and cosmetics, with the best quality and most reasonable price and the most prestigious brands in the world.

Kian Center
Commercial Kian Center is one of the biggest shopping malls in Mashhad, which has different parts including fast food, children's play hall and a hypermarket. This complex is located at the intersection of Janbaz Street and Martyr Faramarz Abbasi Street.

- Souvenirs of Mashhad
Turquoise and Agate turnery
Turquoise and agate turnery in Kurasan Razavi province has had a significant position and the adornments made by the gem of these rocks are among the souvenirs of Mashhad travelers and pilgrims take with themselves as a blessed object. The oldest turquoise rock was discovered in archaeological excavations in Neishapur dating back to 5500 years ago. It shows that the turquoise stone were used even thousands of years ago in ancient societies. Products of turquoise according to their color and quality may take different names and the color of that of finest quality is light blue. From this rock types of necklaces and finger ring are made and marketed. Cutting the agate dates back to three thousand years ago. After cutting the stone and shaving it is then polished. Different kinds of agate are Iranian, Yemeni, and Indian.

Religious flags
Producing religious flags is among those arts that because of the existence of the pure and holy shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.) in Mashhad is very important. Religious flags are bought by the pilgrims and the religious groups of other cities and Muslim countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, India, and Pakistan as the blessed souvenirs to be used in the mourning religious ceremonies. These flags are produced on suede cloth in green and black and have different kinds such as large two- shaft flags and thin and panel flags and the moderate kind is known as spread of blessing or Salawat. It is sewed by crocheting and solid sewing and religious expressions are sewed on the cloth. Other types of religious flags are gilded embroidered cut letters and the flags special for mosques.

Chehel Kelid (Forty Key) Goblet
Today a variety of souvenir shops and stores of Mashhad sell golden goblets that are stacked on the market known, according to their shapes, as the forty key goblets. On the slim edge of the goblet there was a tiny hole incorporating forty small and slender rectangular pieces of brass designed with the words of "In the Name of God" in the form of coil. The exterior edge of the goblet was adorned with the name of the fourteen infallible (A.S.) in the Thulth script as 8 inscriptions separated by eight circles. The external surface is engraved by the magical numbers and letters, and in another part of the goblet the prayer Nad-a Ali can be seen. According to some accounts, this goblet is useful for solving the problems and marriage. Later the symbol of hand was added to the goblet.

Seven Item (Haft Qalam) Spice
There is a spice souvenir in Mashhad markets known as the "seven item" that is mostly used in soup, stew, gippo and other Iranian foods. This spice is a mixture of crushed cinnamon, angelica, ginger, black pepper, red pepper and curcuma. Other types of this spice are the rice spice and the eighteen color spice.

Saffron and Barberry
Saffron fields display beautiful landscape for tourists and thus saffron is one of the main souvenirs that tourists and pilgrims in Mashhad can buy. Saffron is usually purchased along with barberry. Saffron is supplied today as tiny, large and root-bearing saffron. Barberry also has different kinds the main of which are pomegranate barberry and swelled (chamber) barberries.

Dried fruits
Dried fruits have root in the Iranian culture and taste from long ago and have high nutritional value. Previously, since there has been no preserving device like today to preserve fruits for a long duration, fruits were dried by different methods while their seeds were preserved as well. In a method the fruit juice is evaporated while its sugar and other materials are preserved. Some of dried fruits used as souvenir in Mashhad are black prune, prunella, dried peach, dried fig, dried berry, pea, raisings and different seeds.

Nabat (candy) and comfit and Souhan
Nabat is a product made of sugar crystals produced by certain methods that is supplied in branched and bowl-shaped forms. Comfit is produced in different nut, monkey nut, almond, rosewater, club and saffron kinds. Ginger chocolate and Razavi cake are also among favorable sweets of Mashhad.

Using perfume is recommended in Islam and there are several traditions quoted by the Prophet (S.A.W.) regarding using perfume. Pilgrims use such perfumes before going on the pilgrimage of the holy shrine. Certain stores present this product in various colors and scents including sarb flower, shin bone, tuberose, narcis, orange flower, saffron, chimonanthus fragrans, and white lilac. Holy shrine perfume, rose perfume, and lilac perfume are the best religious perfumes.
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