Sheikh Baha’i ; Architect of Imam Reza Shrine

Saturday , 07/24/2021 - 18:17
Sheikh Baha’i ; Architect of Imam Reza Shrine
Bahāʾ al‐Dīn Muḥammad ibn Ḥusayn al‐ʿĀmilī, known as Sheikh Bahai is one of great Shiite scholars of the tenth and eleventh century AH, who was born in Baalbek in an area known today as Lebanon.
 His hometown has always been one of the most important origins of Shiite, and many Shiite scholars have risen from that area. The Bahaei's family was one of the famous families of Jebel Amel during that time, and their ancestors come to Hareth Hamedani, loyal companion of Imam Ali (A.S.).
 Sheikh Baha'i grandfather, Ezzedin Hussein ibn-e Abdul Samad ibn-e Muhammad ibn-e Ali ibn-e Hussein, was one of the great scholars of the tenth century AH who had studied jurisprudence, Usul, hadith, Rijal, philosophy, Kalam, mathematics, commentary, poetry, history, and many others. He was a skillful scientist and one of distinguished students of Shahid Thani.
 Sheikh Al-Islam of Safavid Period
This well-known scholar and mystic in the field of politics was a great jurisprudent of the Safavid era, and for many years he was in charge of the most important religious political office (Shaikh al-Islam) in the reign of Shah Abbas I, the most powerful state of the Safavid dynasty. 
In the realm of architectural art, he was leading in the domain of developing the city of Isfahan and creating lasting works.
 Sheikh Bahai trained many students. A group of nineteenth-century scholars have studied before him including Mulla Sadra Shirazi, Mulla Mohsen Feiz Kashani, Muhammad Taqi Majlisi, the father of Allameh Muhammad Baqir Majlisi, Muhaqiq Sabzevari, Sheikh Zainuddin Ameli, Zayn al-Din al-Juba'i al'Amil grandson, and so on.
Sheikh Baha'i spent more than thirty years of his life traveling to various cities including Egypt, Syria, Hejaz, Iraq, Palestine, Afghanistan, and talked with the scholars and the people of those areas. He was a preacher of Shiism and suffered and worked hard to keep Shi'ite culture alive.
 During that time, it was very difficult to travel because of the risk of thieves, wolves, losing the way, thirsting in the desert and many other threats, but Sheikh Baha'i, left up the court and authority of Sheikh al-Islam, and went to the public to get acquainted with their pain, and then to treat the sick community of Islam.
A Skilled Architect
 In the viewpoint of the Iranian people, Sheikh Baha'i is famous for math, architecture and engineering, and is still known for these traits; the design of Najifabad drain known as the Zarin-Kamar Qanat , the exact determination of the Qiblah of the Imam Mosque in Isfahan, designing of the Najaf fence, designing and construction of the religious noon Index in the west of Imam Mosque of Isfahan as well as in the Gowharshad Mosque in the holy shrine of Hazrat Reza (A.S.), designing a wall in the courtyard of the Holy Shrine of Imam Ali (A.S.) in Najaf that marks the decline of the sun throughout the year, designing the Inqilab courtyard of the Razavi Holy Shrine as a hexagonal, invention of Venetian Ceruse that is known as the Sheikh Venetian Ceruse in Isfahan, the construction of Manar Jonban, designing the dome of the Imam Mosque in Isfahan that echoes sound seven times, and building a clock that did not need a tune-up, making a bath stove in a public bath which is still remaining in Isfahan known today as Sheikh Baha’i  bath are among the works of construction of this philosopher and architect.
Endowment for Library of Holy Shrine
Qur'an manuscripts ascribed to the handwriting of Imam Ali (A.S.), Imam Hassan and Imam Hussein (A.S.), written with Kofi script on dear skin, were endowed to Astan Quds Razavi in 979 by Shah Abbas I, Safavid, with an endowment letter written by Sheikh Baha’i.
 In addition, he donated 36 manuscripts to Astan Quds Razavi library in 996 AH. Sheikh Baha'i also made a wish to donate his personal library to the Holy Shrine of Imam Reza (A.S.). It is a hereditary and endowed legacy of four thousand manuscripts and lithographs most of which were written during his lifetime and stamped and signed by Sheikh himself. 
Farewell to world
Sheikh Baha'i departed in Shawal 12, 1030 AH. at the age of 77, and more than fifty thousand people of Isfahan attended in his funeral. Isfahan, the Safavid capital, was drowned in mourning. Mulla Muhammad Taqi Majlisi prayed to him, and then he was taken to Mashhad, and, according to his will, was buried in his house near the Razavi Holy Shrine. Now the mausoleum of Sheikh Baha'i is located in one of the porticos of the holy shrine named after him. 
The portico of the Sheikh Baha'i, located at the south-east of the holy shrine, is the grave of Sheikh Baha ud-Din Ameli known as the Sheikh Baha'i. His tomb from the north is leading to the Azadi courtyard, from the south to the entrance of Imam Khomeini, from the east to the Dar al-Ibadah portico, and from the west to the Dar al-Zuhd portico. 
 The main way toward the Sheikh Baha’i portico is through a corridor at the southwestern side of the Azadi courtyard, which is connected with a few steps to the Azadi courtyard. 
On the western side of the corridor of the Sheikh Baha’i portico, an inscription as a sheet of mosaic tile exhibits the text written on the Sheikh's gravestone. The tomb with a length of 30.8 meters and a width of 40 cm represents 70 works of Sheikh Baha'i's works.
All the walls of the portico above the plinth, as well as the ceiling are adorned with glass work and the ceiling is vaulted pendant and has a checkered style with 25 fountains.
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